Image: Wikimedia Commons
Updated 28th September with more info from St Hugh’s & Wadham Colleges. Updated 10th January 2017 with info on Queen’s, Brasenose, St Peter’s, Worcester, Oriel and LMH.
There is a persistent urban legend that you can walk between Oxford and Cambridge without ever leaving college land.
The ancient colleges of Oxford University are certainly wealthy institutions: the combined funds of all the colleges in 2015 were revealed to be some £4.1 billion, with £1.3 billion invested in property. It’s clear that beyond the dreaming spires of the colleges themselves, with their honey-coloured quads dating back to medieval times and cobbled streets strewn with post-examination revelries, stretch property empires worth many millions of pounds.
Wealth brings with it great power, and in the words of Spider-Man’s mentor, ‘With great power comes great responsibility’. I had the privilege of studying at Oxford, and certainly benefited from its wealth and the education it helped paid for. Clearly, Oxford has wider social responsibilities – from ensuring anyone, from any background, can gain an education there; to investing its money ethically (such as by divesting from all fossil fuels, which the University has so far failed to do). I believe the Oxford Colleges should also be open about what they own. So, I asked them to tell me.
I began with a Freedom of Information request to the central University of Oxford, asking for a GIS map of all the land owned by the University and its colleges. But I had forgotten how fiercely independent each college remains. I was told: “The University’s Estates Department does not hold a GIS map of all University land or college land. Please note that colleges are separate public authorities under the Freedom of Information Act”.
So I girded my loins and prepared an FOI request to all 44 of Oxford’s colleges and halls of residence. The website FOI Directory has a handy list of email contacts for all the colleges, but some of them are out of date, so here’s my corrected and updated list of FOI addresses for Oxford Colleges.
One month on, and the results so far demonstrate rather well that while the relatively poor are happy to be open about their lack of possessions, the rich often like to conceal their wealth.
Below is a table showing the responses I’ve had to date. I’ve ranked each college by their overall wealth, as of 2015.
|Oxford College||Total funds (2015)||Property investments (2015)||Land holdings (acres)||Source of land holdings figure|
|St John’s||£489,584,000||£198,087,000||Refused to answer FOI||FOI response Sept 2016|
|Christ Church||£436,308,000||£100,369,000||Not yet responded to FOI request|
|All Souls||£356,041,000||£159,853,000||9,500||FOI response Sept 2016 (Exeter Uni report 2012 states 10,000)|
|Queen’s||£264,919,000||£72,739,000||5,777.2||FOI response Oct 2016. Full data in Google Spreadsheet|
|Merton||£250,448,000||£116,790,000||14,707||FOI response Sept 2016; see also Exeter Uni report 2012 (5,567 ha ie 13,756 acres) and FOI response 2010: 13,447 acres|
|Magdalen||£223,036,000||£31,779,000||1,200||Exeter Uni report 2012|
|New||£222,801,000||£50,011,000||Referred to speak to a Land Agent.|
|Nuffield||£194,049,000||£97,019,000||373.95||FOI response Sept 2016|
|Jesus||£186,141,000||£90,930,000||Refused to answer FOI – referred me to Land Registry||FOI response Sept 2016|
|University College||£157,406,000||£52,025,000||Refused to answer FOI – stated exceeds cost limits||FOI response Sept 2016|
|Trinity||£148,814,000||£57,237,000||Not yet responded to FOI request|
|Corpus Christi||£140,220,000||£43,525,000||Not yet responded to FOI request|
|Brasenose||£134,962,000||£25,755,000||2,238.73||FOI response Oct 2016. Full data in Google Spreadsheet|
|Lincoln||£128,677,000||£53,812,000||Not yet responded to FOI request|
|Exeter||£115,299,000||£20,609,000||Not yet responded to FOI request|
|Balliol||£111,903,000||None listed||College properties & 2 other sites in Oxford||FOI response Sept 2016|
|Wadham||£109,099,000||£33,862,000||2,600||FOI response Sept 2016|
|St Catherine’s||£86,771,000||£705,000||College buildings only||FOI response Sept 2016|
|Oriel||£78,082,000||£40,149,000||College buildings & residential properties in Oxford only||FOI response Jan 2017 (refused to disclose acreage; only disclosed property in Oxford – might still own land outside it?)|
|Somerville||£76,905,000||£580,000||College buildings and Oxford accommodation only||FOI response Sept 2016|
|Pembroke||£74,414,000||£2,153,000||14||FOI response Sept 2016|
|Hertford||£71,734,000||None listed||College buildings & Oxford accommodation only (see separate spreadsheet for details)||FOI response Sept 2016|
|Worcester||£68,128,000||£13,556,000||1,000 (at most)||Exeter Uni report 2012. FOI response Oct 2016 suggests much less – 26 acres for the college & otherwise just residential properties|
|Wolfson||£66,986,000||£13,329,000||Not yet responded to FOI request|
|Keble||£64,690,000||None listed||College buildings only||FOI response Sept 2016|
|St Antony’s||£63,789,000||£1,070,000||College buildings only||FOI response Oct 2016 (map here)|
|St Hilda’s||£62,368,000||None listed||College buildings & Oxford accommodation only||FOI response Sept 2016|
|St Edmund Hall||£60,990,000||£2,619,000||12.09||FOI response Sept 2016|
|St Anne’s||£58,918,000||£779,000||8.5||FOI response Sept 2016|
|Lady Margaret Hall||£57,948,000||£2,405,000||College buildings & a few properties around Oxford||FOI response Sept 2016|
|St Hugh’s||£56,716,000||None listed||14||FOI response Sept 2016|
|Green Templeton||£53,902,000||£14,820,000||College buildings & Oxford accommodation only (see PDF map)||FOI response Sept 2016|
|St Peter’s||£44,217,000||£2,264,000||College buildings & a few properties in Oxford||FOI response Oct 2016 (College has sent me title registers for each property)|
|Linacre||£24,377,000||None listed||College buildings & a few properties in Oxford (listed in notes)||Exeter Uni report 2012, FOI response Sept 2016|
|Mansfield||£19,762,000||None listed||3.5 acres (College properties & accommodation only)||FOI response Sept 2016|
|Harris Manchester||£15,555,000||None listed||College buildings & single Oxford accommodation site only||FOI response Sept 2016|
|St Cross||Not known||Not known||Does not own any land or property (unusual legal entity, more of a department than a college)||FOI response Sept 2016|
|St Stephen’s House||Not known||Not known||College buildings only||FOI response Sept 2016|
|Wycliffe Hall||Not known||Not known||Not yet responded to FOI request|
|Blackfriars||Not known||Not known||Not yet responded to FOI request|
|Campion Hall||Not known||Not known||Not yet responded to FOI request|
|Kellogg||Not known||Not known||Not yet responded to FOI request|
|Regent’s Park||Not known||Not known||Don’t own any property||FOI response Sept 2016|
|St Benet’s Hall||Not known||Not known||Not yet responded to FOI request|
TOTALS: £4,647,282,000 | £1,298,831,000 | 37,446 acres
What the colleges own
As you can see, St John’s College, the wealthiest of all Oxford colleges – with declared funds in 2015 of some £489.5 million, including £198 million invested in property, the most of any college – has refused to disclose details of its landholdings.
Jesus and University College, both in the top ten richest colleges, have also refused to answer, though the information officer at Univ says: “I imagine Univ would probably be towards the upper end of a hypothetical landholdings table.”
I’m still waiting to hear back from Christ Church, the second wealthiest college overall and fourth place in terms of property investments (and inspiration for Hogwarts’ dining hall in the Harry Potter movies).
All Souls and Merton Colleges – 2nd and 3rd respectively when it comes to property investments – have, however, disclosed details of their lands. All Souls owns some 9,500 acres, whilst Merton owns 14,707 acres. We know that Merton’s landholdings have been steadily increasing for a few years, as a previous FOI request in 2010 revealed them to own 13,447 acres, while Exeter University’s report on college landholdings in 2012 stated Merton owned 13,756 acres.
Indeed, Merton has given me a full breakdown of their landholdings and areas, while All Souls has also supplied location data, allowing me to map their land:
Nuffield College, though comparatively wealthy, owns just 373.95 acres, but its property wealth appears to stem more from the value of its urban properties than from the extent of its land holdings (full document here). Magdalen, meanwhile, was estimated in 2012 to own 1,200 acres, and Worcester around 1,000 acres. Wadham have stated in response to my FOI request that they own 2,600 acres of agricultural land, though haven’t said what area of commercial and residential buildings they own.
But the colleges that have been most forthcoming with information are the ones with least land. Five other colleges have supplied calculations of the areas of land they own, all small and confined to college buildings and Oxford properties: Mansfield (3.5 acres), St Edmund Hall (12.05 acres), Pembroke (14 acres), St Hugh’s (14 acres), and St Anne’s (8.5 acres). A further nine colleges claim to only own college buildings and student accommodation. St Cross College and Regent’s Park College do not own any property at all, the latter stating that “As a Baptist foundation the College’s property – as [with] most Baptist churches in England – is held in trust by the London Baptist Property Board.”
So we’ve identified the colleges that own some 37,446 acres. Yet previous studies have suggested Oxford’s colleges own far more than this.
As recounted in this recent study (see chapter 6), the 1872 Return of Owners of Land recorded Oxford Colleges as then owning some 185,000 acres, and that by 1989 this had declined to some 127,690 acres.
So what’s happened? How come the colleges appear to now own almost 100,000 fewer acres today than just 25 years ago?
Perhaps some of the missing acres are accounted for by the many properties owned by colleges in Oxford itself. But this can’t account for more than a fraction of the missing total. The whole of Oxford, or at least the area sandwiched between the A40 to the North, the A34 to the South and West, and the Eastern Bypass, comprises some 37.6 square kilometres, or 9,291 acres. Even if the colleges owned the entirety of this area, it doesn’t take us much further towards the ‘missing’ 100,000 acres.
So do the colleges who haven’t yet responded to my FOI requests harbour vast expanses of land? Or have they, in fact, disposed of around 100,000 acres since the early 1990s? We’ll hopefully soon find out.
As for the legend that you can walk from Oxford to Cambridge without leaving college land… well, I’m no longer so sure. But then, my investigations have only examined one half of the equation. Some digging by a Cambridge student paper last year uncovered that St John’s College Cambridge owns 14,700 acres and Trinity College Cambridge 13,335 acres. Can anyone step forward to complete the picture?
13 thoughts on “What do the Oxford Colleges own?”
I know that Oxford colleges (possibly St Johns) owned a lot of land in Cheltenham. Many of the oldest buildings carry the crest of one of the Oxford colleges. No idea if they still own them but it wouldn’t surprise me. I expect a local historian in Cheltenham could assist. I no longer live there or I would do some research myself.
Corpus Christi own a large collection of property and land in Cheltenham and have done since 1586 and developed a self named road which is now just ‘Corpus Street’ on one of their plots. Part of these substantial holdings were bequeathed by Richard Pate to Corpus Christi College, from which he had graduated, and they were responsible for its administration for several centuries. This was done on the condition that three-quarters of the income should be used by the College ‘for the perpetual maintenance and foundation of a free Grammar School at Cheltenham … and also a Hospital or Almshouse for six old poor people’.
Corpus Christi Oxford have just revealed themselves as one of the key landowners of farmland slated to become a Garden Village north of Eynsham – 2,200 dwellings plus a science/business park. https://www.westoxon.gov.uk/media/1483153/West-Oxon-Garden-Village-EoI-July-2016.pdf
I wonder how many Oxford/Cambridge colleges are landowners for the other Garden Villages/Towns announced today.
I was under the impression that the Oxford University Chest also owns large areas of land…Certainly Have farmland here in Hertfordshire
I gather that Christ Church College used to own a series of streets in Kentish Town in north London, that at the time were known collectively as the Christ Church Estate. The individual streets were named after various famous alumni. But in 1955 many of the houses were sold by auction and the freeholds transferred to the London Borough of St Pancras. I am trying to find out more about this. What I think was happening was that Christ Church had let the various houses to individuals who then behaved like rogue landlords and crammed the buildings with so many tenants per room that after World War II, the local council became anxious and bought up the streets of houses, possibly by compulsory purchase. They are still mostly council properties. Can anyone add anything to this?
I was recently told one of the colleges/universities are selling land they own in Wootton Bassett which will be developed for housing. Far more damning on a personal level is today’s news that 100 acres of land in the nearby small village of Broad Town is being sold by Brasenose College, with the likelihood it too will end up being built on extensively. This is soul destroying news for those of us who cherish the peace of a small rural village. I moved to Broad Town within the social housing sector in hope of improving my health and not wholly by choice and I now face the prospect of being “stuck” in a development area for the rest of my life. I admit to being naïve, but I find it was a huge shock to learn the future of rural villages can lie in the hands of those who don’t know they exist, let alone give a thought to the lives of those who will be massively impacted by land being sold for development.
The tale from when I was a lad was that you could walk from Oxford to Southampton without stepping off St. Johns College land. True or not, we all believed it.
I have been researching my family farming history in Bucks and Oxfordshire and discover that all the farms they worked (going back to 1700 so far…) were owned by New College Oxford, which seems to have owned large tracts of both counties thanks to it’s founder William of Wyckham.
I understand that, despite this enormous wealth, Oxford colleges, and probably many others, are registered as ‘charities’ and therefore do not pay normal business rates. Does anyone know
a) if this is still true and b) how such a situation can exist in the light of all the profit made, which does not benefit charitable causes as far as one can see.
Do you know if there is a map or details of land ownership in central Oxford? Who owns what in the city centre?